The 57-D, 60-D and 61-D Lincoln Cent rolls purchase

1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse in LIBERTY

Processed 117 BU Lincoln Cent Rolls. Here’s what we found.

I called a 3rd party source since I knew they had a collection of Lincoln Cent rolls they were looking to sell. After a brief call I found out they had (17) rolls of 1957-D, (50) rolls of 1960-D and (50) rolls of 1961-D Brilliant Uncirculated Lincoln Cents. We haggled a brief moment for a price and it was a tad over $400 USD , shipped USPS priority mail.

I paid and waited a few days. I received an email saying the Lincolns were on the way by USPS priority mail. When the package arrived, I opened the 40 pound package to find out the 1957-D and 1960-D were in old school rubber/plastic style tubes. These tubes over time constrict around the rim of the coins and some of them can be a challenge to remove from the tubes.

No problem. Two years ago, I had purchased a 100 roll bag from a fellow dealer and in there were over 60 of those rubber/plastic tubes. What I did was get a 15 pound portable vise and a medium size pair of Vise Grips. The vice is used to hold the tube, but not too tightly. The Vise Grips help in the removal of the tube cap. Once the cap is removed, I take the tube out of the portable vise. Then comes the tricky part. If you hold the opened tube at a 45 degree angle and lightly tap it on the flat part of the vise on the back, the coins will loosen up enough to eventually come out. Sure some rolls are just plain stubborn. But in the end, all of the coins are out. In some instances, the bottom coin or a few of them would not fall out of the tube. I’d hold the tube upside down on the flat part of the vise. I’d give it a pretty hefty hit with the vise grips at the bottom of the roll, enough to see spider cracks. This typically worked, slightly jarring the coin(s) enough to where tapping eventually moved them down and out of the tube.

The First of many types of 1957-D Doubled Die Obverses

I started with the 1957-D Lincoln Cent Rolls. Most of the cents I looked over quickly and mainly just the obverse. I went to VarietyVista so I could take a look at what types of Lincoln Cent re-punched mint marks (RPM’s) and what type of doubled dies (DDO/DDR) could be in the rolls. I started to prcoess the 57-D Lincoln Cents and eventually had to stop and do two rolls over. I think I found a “LIBERTY” doubled die.

An important thing to remember is, although this may look like machine doubling, it is not. Machine doubling ( aka strike doubling) will take away parts of the letters and devices on the coin. Doubled Dies typically will leave a cookie cutter style lines and may also make the area slightly bigger. In classic doubled die fashion, you should be able to see notching on some parts of where the doubling is on a doubled die coin.

So, in a nut shell, take a look at this handy dandy chart !

Exmples of a normal coi, a doubled die and machine doubling
Exmples of a normal coin, a doubled die and machine doubling

Photos of the first Doubled Die

1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse in LIBERTY
1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse in LIBERTY
1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse in LIBERTY
1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse in LIBERTY

I use a lot of lighting when I am using microscopes, so it is relatively easy to spot something like this. On the other hand, lighting is THE number one issue when taking photos of coins. Every coin can be different in respect to the amount of lighting and angle it needs to get a half decent photo.

I quickly looked towards the date. I thought since there was a possibility that LIBERTY was doubled, that the date may show a hint of doubling as well.

The 19 of the 1957-D Lincoln Cent. It shows some doubling where the YELLOW arrows are.
The 19 of the 1957-D Lincoln Cent. It shows some doubling where the YELLOW arrows are.

The photo above, the “19” show some slight notching. Without taking a lot of time to get the lighting just right. The YELLOW arrows show some mild notching.

The blue arrows signify two die markers that were common in every one of the six or so doubled dies I found for this group. The top blue arrow shows a circular die chip just above the one. The lower blue arrow shows a die scratch that runs from just below the doubled die notching on the “1” to the curl of the “9”. Look at the photo below for a better look at the die scratch.

I can clearly see the notching on the “19” under the microscope. I spun the coin upside down and took a photo. It is evident on the “1” but much easier to see on the “9”. The “57” is pretty minor and difficult to get a nice photograph without magnifying it way too big.

The 19 of the 1957-D doubled die. It was shot upside down to get a better view of the notching.
The 19 of the 1957-D doubled die. It was shot upside down to get a better view of the notching.

Moving onto ‘IN GOD WE TRUST”, I looked over IGWT pretty good and the only evidence of doubling is here.

Doubling seen on the IN from a 1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse
Doubling seen on the IN from a 1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse

One Doubled Die Obverse done

Once I was done with the 1957-D Lincoln Cent rolls, I decided to separate the doubled dies into different tubes. When I separate any type of varieties, I always look for some sort of die marker that is common on each coin. By doing this, it makes sorting A LOT easier.

How die states work on a coin

For the markers on the die, its best to try to find a marker or two that is on the same side the variety is on. At any given moment, they may replace the other die which may throw your attribution off. As a last resort, sure, use the other side of the coin if you need to. On this coin, if you look at the “19” photo above and find the blue arrows, you can see a circular die chip and a die scratch that were evident on each of the coins I grouped together in its own tube. Now, these die markers can fade over time. That means another marker may take the place of these two. If I find the same doubled die with different markers, it means the Die State changed. There are different stages or states a life of a die goes through. Typically they are Early die state, Medium die state, Late die state and Very late die state. Die markers for every coin made can change and some times, the same die state can look a little off in respect for markers – striking coins is not an exact science.

Two other 1957-D doubled dies that I attributed

Now that you have a general Idea of how I attributed and sorted out the first group of 1957-D doubled dies, here are the photos of the second and third Doubled Dies I have done so far.

The second attributed 1957-D doubled die obverse
The second attributed 1957-D doubled die obverse
The second attributed 1957-D doubled die obverse
The second attributed 1957-D doubled die obverse
The second attributed 1957-D doubled die obverse
The second attributed 1957-D doubled die obverse

For the second 1957-D Doubled Die Obverse (DDO) above, the only thing evident was LIBERTY and “19” of the date. The uneven lines on the “19” are stronger than they appear in this photo with the temporary lighting.

Third 1957-D Lincoln Cent DDO

The second attributed The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third attributed The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
The third 1957-D doubled die obverse
1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse
1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse
The third 1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse
The third 1957-D Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse

The third 1957-D Doubled Die Obverse is the one that shows the most doubling so far. I do have others to attribute, but these three give you a glimpse on how I personally process and attribute all of my varieties and errors.

Educational Series – What is a Doubled Die?

A Doubled Die is a term in coin collecting used to refer to doubling in the design elements of a coin. Doubled dies can appear as an outline of the design or in extreme cases, having design elements and dates appear twice in an overlapping fashion. Doubled dies can be seen on the Obverse or Reverse of the coin – or both ! They are commonly referred to as Doubled Die Obverse (DDO) or Doubled Die Reverse (DDR).

What are Doubled Dies worth ?

Doubled die error coins can fetch significant prices when they are noticeable to the naked eye or occur in a popular coin series. A few examples are the 1955 doubled die Lincoln Wheat cent, the 1969-S doubled die Lincoln Memorial cent, the 1972 doubled die Lincoln Memorial cent, the 1964 doubled die Kennedy half dollar, the 1961 doubled die Franklin half dollar to name just a few.

1972 Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse Die 001
1972 Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse Die 001

In the coin collecting world, proper terminology for this occurrence includes the letter ‘d’ at the end of the first word, hence “doubled die”. The term “double die” without the first word ending in ‘d’ is not proper numismatic terminology.

How are Doubled Dies created?

Doubled dies are created when the master die imprints an additional, misaligned image onto a working die. Its the working die that has two or more pressings, not the planchet. A working die with several misaligned pressings is taken to a press where coins are made with that working die.

The different classes of Doubled Dies

There are many ways this misalignment of devices can occur, which have been grouped into eight classes:

Class 1 Doubled Die, Rotated – Results when the working die receives an additional pressing from the master die that is misaligned in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

Class 2 Doubled Die, Distorted – Results when the master die design moves toward the rim between hubbings.

Class 3 Doubled Die, Design – When a master die bearing a different design stamps a die bearing another design.

Class 4 Doubled Die, Offset – The working die receives an additional pressing that is misaligned in an offset direction.

Class 5 Doubled Die, Pivoted – The working die receives an additional pressing that was misaligned via rotation with a pivot point near the rim.

Class 6 Doubled Die, Distended – The working die receives an additional pressing from a master die that was distended.

Class 7 Doubled Die, Modified – The master die is modified between the working die’s pressings (e.g., a design element was chiseled off).

Class 8 Doubled Die, Tilted – A working die and/or master die is tilted during a hubbing.

Doubled dies are a result of the way in which in the United States Mint dies are created. Before 1997, die pairs (hammer die and anvil die) were made by hubs that contained the raised design elements that were intended to appear on the coin. The blank dies were heated (to soften them) and then were pressed against the hubs to transfer the design from the hub to the working dies.

Creation of a working die, with the master die on top of the press.
Creation of a working die, with the master die on top of the press. Mint workers would remove the die, check for a complete transfer. If it was not complete, another pressing would occur. Should the second pressing be misaligned, a “doubled die” was created.

Often, one impression was not enough in every case to transfer the design elements from the hub to the die, so multiple impressions were required to transfer enough of the design. For this reason, after the first impression was made, the die was reheated and prepared for a second impression.

Creation of a working die
Creation of a working die. If the design did not transfer completely, it was heated and pressed again.

The mint workers would try to use guides to align the hub and the working die perfectly to prevent overlapping, or a doubled die. If the die was acceptable within the mint standards, the working die would be put in a press and coins would be minted. If the engraver thought something was amiss, they would stop the press and investigate. A lot of variety coins have escaped the mint prior to 1996.

A senior mint worker examining the coins being stuck by the mint presses.
A senior mint worker examining the coins being stuck by the mint presses.


It is when mint workers failed to align dies properly during this process that doubled dies were produced. In many instances three to four impressions were required, which could but rarely led to tripled and quadrupled dies.

Kennedy Hald Dollar Doubled Die Obverse
Kennedy Half Dollar Doubled Die Obverse. This doubled die has that classic “cookie cutter” look.

In summary, prior to 1996, after each impression, a heated working die is removed and checked to see if the entire design and its details were successfully transferred from the master die, to the target working die. A doubled/tripled/quadrupled die is created if these multiple impressions pressed onto the working die were not properly aligned. If the die was acceptable and within the mint standards, the working die would be put in a press and coins would be minted. If the engraver thought something was amiss, they would stop the press and investigate. A lot of variety coins have escaped the mint prior to 1995.

Note: you will see HUB used in place of master die in may locations – it’s the same thing.

New way to make working dies but doubled dies are still being created

Modern coining methods have greatly reduced the number of these varieties due to the use of a single squeeze hubbing method during die creation, but doubled dies in modern United States coinage are still occurring.

With this new die making process implemented after 1996, dies only require one impression of the hub to transfer all of the design from the master die to the working die. But it has been discovered that the pressure created is so great, that some working dies tend to slightly rotate during this process.

Unique Coins seen at the VNA coin show

Posted on October 1, 2019

Unique Coins seen at the 2019 VNA coin show

Best coins I got to see and examine at the 2019 VNA Coin show

I was at the Virginia Numismatic Association ( http://www.vnaonline.org ) annual coin show. I brought my microscope and camera gear and I got to photograph a lot of unique coins. Have a look !

1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date (RPD) over date

Ever since I had the privilege to examine this coin in hand, I have been on the hunt to find more information about this overdate. I do not see any documentation on this, let alone another example. Being that this is slabbed and genuine, it may very well be the only one known in existence.

The photos came out “OK”. The problem with taking photographs with portable lighting is that the environment can change drastically. Some times in order to get an absolutely perfect photograph of a slabbed coin take take a while – some times hours. Being that this was photographed just before the show opened, I placed some undesired haste upon myself to get the coin done as soon as I could so I could assist other customers as they came up to the CONECA table. Take a look at this over date. It looks pretty amazing.

1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD overdate
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD overdate
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD overdate
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD overdate
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD
1860 over 1859 Spanish Two Reales Repunched Date RPD

1971-D Kennedy Struck Through and Raised

This Kennedy Half Dollar is one of the weirdest I have handled in quite some time. The struck through error on this coin is pretty evident. It almost looks like hands of a clock. The extra metal is raised. When I placed the Kennedy Half Dollar so the obverse was face down, the coin was see-sawing back and forth. The highest point of the metal is evident, and its on the cheekbone, about half way between the ear and mouth. The height was easily noticeable, the extra metal height about the thickness of a dime or so. I did not have a lot of time to photograph this coin, so I took what photos I could.

1971-D Kennedy Half Dollar Struck Through Metal Retained
1971-D Kennedy Half Dollar Struck Through Metal Retained
1971-D Kennedy Half Dollar Struck Through Metal Retained
1971-D Kennedy Half Dollar Struck Through Metal Retained

An Ancient coin, slightly larger than a pea

Ancient Coin Size of a pea obverse
Ancient Coin Size of a pea obverse
Ancient Coin Size of a pea reverse
Ancient Coin Size of a pea reverse

Not one but, TWO 1972 Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse DDO-001’s

1972 Lincoln Cent Doubled Die 001 variety error coin
1972 Lincoln Cent Doubled Die 001 variety error coin

Dealers Questioned the Authenticity of this Barber 50 cent piece – Counterfeit?

I had a person ask whether this coin was a counterfeit or not. I told him its extremely difficult to tell when the coin has already been slabbed by a third party grading compnay, or appears that it is a legit coin. I looked over the slab and noticed a few deficiencies. The owner said other dealers told him it was a counterfeit because the coin looked too good. I said, “what? So these dealers would consider anything like a proof of this series questionable as well? ” . I suggested that the owner consult the company who slabbed the coin. They could send it in to verify the autehnticity of the coin, but there may be a chance that they would not get the coin back if it is a counterfeit. The coin may be confiscated by law enforcement and used as evidence.

The outer ring of the coin has some debris. This would not be an issue if the coin had some of the same type debris on it as well. This coin looks free of any debris or discoloration. On the obverse side to the left of the coin, there appears to be some damage to the interior of the holder. It could be some sort of separation attempt?

The reverse shows a pretty significant amount of discoloration or debris around that outer ring as well. It is simply tough to say for certain if this coin was a counterfeit.

1900 Barber Coin with questionable slab issues
1900 Barber Coin with questionable slab issues
1900 Barber Coin with questionable slab issues
1900 Barber Coin with questionable slab issues

Double struck flipped in collar Jefferson Nickel

Double struck flipped in collar Jefferson Nickel
Double struck flipped in collar Jefferson Nickel

1939 Jefferson Nickel Doubled Die Reverse

1939 Jefferson Nickel Double Die Reverse Monticello
1939 Jefferson Nickel Double Die Reverse Monticello
1939 Jefferson Nickel Double Die Reverse Monticello
1939 Jefferson Nickel Double Die Reverse Monticello

Dollar sized coin with die clashes

Bicentennial Medallion Clashes
BiCentennial-Clashes-Rev.JPG
Bicentennial Medallion Clashes
Bicentennial Medallion Clashes

There are several more neat looking coins that I will crop and put on here. But overall, these were the more interesting coins that I got to handle and examine.