How to easily identify each types of error coins with photos. Many examples shown are types of error coins with photos.
Types of error coins with photos
Planchet Error types of error coins with photos
Planchet error coins are focused on issues related to the planchet itself. These planchet error coins may have occurred whether it was done prior to being sent through to the upsetting mill which shaped the blank with a rim. Without travelling through the upsetting mill, planchets are considered type I planchets. After the coin has been sent through the upsetting mill, and have a rim, they are considered type II planchets.
Type I blank planchet error
Clipped planchet types of error coins with photos
Clipped planchet can be mild or extreme. They can also e rounded, straight or ragged.
The machine which punched out the planchet, simply hiccups, and punches a new line of planchet
in an area that has already been punched out. Somehow the clipped planchet escapes the mint, usually in bags.
These types of errors are much sought after by error collectors when the clipped area is between 20 to 60 percent on modern coins, and 10 to 40 percent on older coins.
Cladding error types of error coins with photos
Incomplete punched planchet
An incomplete punched planchet occurs when the sheet of metal is inserted into the punching machine, but the machine has an issue. The strip either gets stuck, slips, or moves too quickly. The tool which punches these planchet could simply be dull, and requires maintenance. Overlapping attempts to punch a planchet out of the strip will cause planchets to be either incomplete punched planchets or clipped planchets.
Lamination types of error coins with photos
Lamination errors can occur before or during the minting of a coin. The lamination error is usually associated with the metal alloy in which it may have been rolled improperly, have the wrong metal content per layer, or be extremely brittle or flakey.
Lamination issues that were introduced onto the metal strips that planchet are punched out of will eventually be struck with the lamination error already present.
Lamination errors can be made when striking the coin If conditions are conducive for it. The most common lamination error is usually associated which an application of grease. When a planchet is struck by working dies the pressure exerted onto the planchet along with the grease can cause a suction, and some of the planchet metal may be removed in this process.
Wrong metal types of error coins with photos
Wrong metal error coins can bring a very big premium. It really depends on what type of metal it is. From transitional errors, where a coin should be silver and is clad, or should be clad and it is silver, to totally wrong metals as well. There are coins struck on wrong planchets, such as half dollars struck on copper cents, nickels and quarters struck on copper cents plus US minted coins struck on foreign planchets. Additionally, world coins struck on wrong planchets as well.
Hub and Die related types of error coins with photos
Cuds types of error coins with photos
Cuds are marginal die breaks. They usually touch the rim to qualify as a cud. This one has been submitted for inclusion to the Cuds on Coins database. I made a purchase directly from India for ten of the exact same error coins.
The coin has been added to the Cud on Coins database: CU-2R(IN)-2015-01R .
Die breaks or cracks types of error coins with photos
Working dies are used to strike planchets into coins. Over time, like anything else, these working does are subject to wear and tear. Eventually these working dies are subject to stress cracks and die breaks. These can happen for a variety of reasons. Die breaks and die cracks are displayed as raised lines on the coin, in jagged form. The photo below shows a major die break which the mint workers would have taken out and replaced because this die is past its life expectancy.
If it was allowed to continue much further, the die would eventually fall apart and crumble. Die cracks like this one that are dramatic in nature, might fetch a nice premium.
The Lincoln cent below does qualify for the “retained Cud” designation. A retained Cud is simply a cracked die in which a portion of that die should be able to fall out, but has not.
This coin is designated as: RCD-1c-1952-01 (cross reference is: SKH-1c-1952-02D)
Other examples can be seen here: https://cuds-on-coins.com/lincoln-cent-1909-1958-rcd/
When dies begin to fail, it is pretty evident. The photo below shows a Lincoln cent that is within a few thousand strikes before it would shatter. Lincoln’s head is primarily where die cracks emerge on he cent due to this area being one of the largest and deepest cavity on the die.
Die Caps (Capped Die) types of error coins with photos
Capped Dies are planchets that when struck as coins, adhere or stick to the hammer die. The coin will produce a small number of Brockage coins, and then will produce struck through capped die errors, that resemble one sided coins.
With the hammer die capped, the planchet will progressively become thinner and thinner, as each strike will cause the metal to climb up the sides of the die. The die will remain capped until a mint worker removes the capped die or, it eventually breaks free from the die, since the die cap is so thin.
Die chips types of error coins with photos
Clogged Numbers and BIE error coins are primarily caused by debris settling between the numbers or letters. This debris can be minute flakes if metal that is sheared away due to mechanical imbalances when the planchet is struck into a coin.
Combine the metal flakes with grease which may result in some of these areas becoming quite dramatic. Typical locations for the debris to accumulate are on the date, mintmark or LIBERTY on Lincoln cents. But any location close to a device (number, letter, building, etc) can be game for die chips to accumulate.
Mis-aligned die (MAD) types of error coins with photos
Mis-aligned die (MAD) error coins are associated with the improper installation of one die on the minting press. When a coin is struck, one side of the coin will appear normal, where the other side of the coin will be slightly out of alignment.
This differs from an off-center strike, where the obverse and reverse are both off center.
This type of error is sought after by a select amount of error collectors and does not seem to bring a high premium.
Multi-struck types of error coins with photos
Multiple struck coins are coins which get delayed leaving the striking chamber of the minting press. The minting press is operating like a high speed jack-hammer. It only takes a very short period of time, probably tenths of seconds for a coin to be multi-struck. The coin remains in the striking chamber, usually out of the collar.
Normally after a successful centered strike, something goes amiss and the coin is not properly ejected. It may sit on the edge of the die, uncentered and receive an additional single strike or several additional strikes before being cleared out of the striking chamber.
In my opinion, there are two categories for multistruck erros coins; appealing with dramtics and mutilated. People tend to show reluctance to purchase higher end error coins because they are uncertain about the condition and value. Add in a coin that has been pulverized almost to the point of not being able to recognized what it is, and the negatives within one’s mind may add to a person passing on the mutilated coins.
A nice premium can be had on appealing and dramatic multistruck coins. These coins are becoming rare, due to the US Mint not allowing errors to escape the the mint since 2003.
Off-center types of error coins with photos
Most off center error coins sit on the anvil die off center. Most will be struck out of collar or will have a partial collar at best. The partial collar will show reeding on limited area of the off center coin.
This is another popular error coin with collectors, and not many above 15 % have escaped the mint since 2003.
Split planchet types of error coins with photos
A coin that becomes a split planchet after the strike usually occurs due to the metal alloy being compromised. The planchet itself was brittle, improperly rolled or had other imperfections within the metal which under stress split in two.
Strike related types of error coins with photos
Brockage types of error coins with photos
Brockages are pretty complex to explain. First, we have a blank planchet placed upon the anvil die ready to be struck into a coin. The minting press strikes the coin, but it sticks to the hammer die becoming a Die Cap. In the photo below, the hammer die was the Reverse die, since we have no reverse die present.
With the reverse die covered by a planchet, and the planchet was struck, the coin has a successful obverse image on that capped die. Now, another planchet is fed in between the capped reverse die and anvil die. The dies strike the planchet into a coin. This coin will have a good obverse, but the reverse will have a mirror image from the capped die from an earlier strike.
- It is important to note that since the reverse die is capped, and not being able to produce an image on the coin, the reverse die that is capped will receive a good obverse strike on that reverse capped die.
- When a new planchet arrives to be struck, we have the following situation:
- The reverse die is a capped die ( a coin stuck to the die) with an image of the obverse.
- The obverse die is a free unobstructed normal obverse die.
- When a new planchet is struck under this situation, one side of the coin will appear normal, while the other side will have a mirror image of it, as shown in the photo below.
- When this situation occurs, the minting press will produce a small number of Brockage error coins until the image on the capped die has faded.
- Once the image of the mirror image has faded it becomes a “struck through a capped die” until a mint worker clears the issue, or the capped die becomes so thin it breaks away.
The photo below shows a Brockage error coin, but it has struck quite a few coins and the image is fading. Soon this coin would simply be called “struck through a capped die”, because the image will be unrecognizable.
Mated Pair types of error coins with photos
Mated pair error coins are truly unique. First two or more planchets have to be in the striking chamber at the same time. The, they all have to be struck, sharing that same strike.
The example below shows two Roosevelt dimes that were struck at the same time. The mint typically uses between 9-15 minting presses to manufacture coins. all of these massive amounts of newly made coins get sent down to the bagging area. With all the chaotic movement of these coins heading towards bagging, its almost a miracle that these dimes actually were located in the same bag.
Mule types of error coins with photos
Coins which have the wrong combination of dies and mint coins with this combination are called mule coins. In the example below, mint workers placed two reverse dies. A 2 Rubles and a 10 Rubles on the same minting press.
The rarest known U S minted error coin very well well may be the 2014 Sacagawea obverse mule with a presidential dollar reverse. There is only one known.
Sacagawea also has another mule coin,. This one is from 2000 and it is the combination of a Washington Quarter obverse mule with a Sacagawea reverse. Approximately 11 are known to exist. The Sacagawea mule coins fetch a very high premium.
Struck through late stage capped die types of error coins with photos
Struck through late stage die caps are coins that entered a minting press, with the hammer die on that press having a capped die. A capped die is explained above, die caps are coins when struck, stick to the hammer die, and cover up the intended image of that die.
The metal of die cap becomes really thin over time since it has struck many coins. With the thin metal, most of the design features can be made out when the dies continue to strike coins. The appearance of a late stage capped die appears ghostly, almost an unfocused view of the coin. Eventually this die cap will break away and the die will no longer be capped. Mint workers may identify the issue and remove it as well.
Struck through types of error coins with photos
Struck through debris can be just about anything that has not been positively identified. The debris somehow finds its way into the striking chamber, between the set of dies and the planchet. The end result is that the debris typically will damage the coin. Some of the strike through coins can show some dramatic effects, and fetch a good premium.
Struck though fragments are pieces of lamination or parts of the coin which enter the striking chamber. The fragment can be stuck to a die or moving around freely. When a coin is struck with a fragment in the way, it will damage the area where the fragment sat, usually a divot, dent or area will be pressed into the coin.
Struck though fragments will look jagged and are typically uniform in thickness. Premiums are higher for coins which retain the fragment on the struck through coin, but most strikes have the fragment attached to the die.
If the fragment is large and is easily see, especially with the naked eye, it may fetch a nice premium. In most cases, the fragments are more than likely on the smaller side and not in the easy to spot location. These smaller fragments, like the one below, may not fetch a good premium.
Struck through grease is one of the more popular errors out there. When maintenance was performed on the dies, an over abundance of grease may have been applied to the working dies. The resulting effect when a coin is struck can be quite dramatic. Portions of the design elements can be weak, or missing altogether.
The surface of the coin may show some unevenness, and be vety blotchy, or splattered in nature. Grease may be evident, especially close to the rim. Struck through grease errors can be found on one or both sides of the coin, at varying amounts of the coin being affected. The coin shown below is a pretty dramatic version of being struck through grease and may bring a significant premium.
Not a big fan of these major types of error coins with photos? Need more drama? Then, take a look at our major mint error coins called Die Caps: Die Cap Major Mint Error Coins (minterrors.org)
Looking for “normal” coins? Please see Shop – US Coins, Silver Bullion and Numismatic products and services – TheCoinStore.org